By Özlem Olgu (auth.)
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Extra resources for European Banking: Enlargement, Structural Changes and Recent Developments
Due to its historic dimension, it virtually ended the political separation of Europe whilst the economic impact took a backseat. 4 million and 2 million inhabitants, respectively. The recent EU enlargements not only have political 26 European Banking importance, but amplify the cultural diversity of the EU. Apart from the cultural and national enrichment, the number of ofﬁcial languages jumped from 11 in EU-15 to 22 in EU-27. Moreover, enlargement is expected to continue gradually in the near future with the accession of three more countries that have been granted candidate status, that is, Turkey in 1999, Croatia in 2004 and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) in 2005.
In particular, Creating a Functioning European Union 11 the ECB is required to present an annual report on its monetary policy and other activities to the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission. The Maastricht Treaty extended the domain of the EC in many directions, creating the ESCB, with the ECB at its centre, and constructing the single currency with the objective of replacing national currencies of member countries in order to form the EMU. Unlike the ECB and the NCBs, the ESCB has no legal personality, no capacity to act and no decision-making bodies of its own.
2 Monetary integration plans of the non-euro-area EU countries Countries Intentions for ERM II Intentions for euro adoption Bulgaria As soon as possible Aims to adopt the euro as soon as possible Czech Republic ERM II participation for only the minimum period of two years ahead of EMU entry. Inﬂation targeting will be retained until monetary integration completed. The readiness to join ERM II and the euro area is assessed on a yearly basis jointly by the government and the national central bank The latest update of the “Czech Republic’s euro area accession strategy”, approved by the Czech authorities in August 2007, states that some of the preconditions needed for beneﬁting from the adoption of the euro have yet to achieve satisfactory parameters.