Embedded Memory Design for Multi-Core and Systems on Chip by Baker Mohammad

By Baker Mohammad

This ebook describes some of the tradeoffs platforms designers face while designing embedded reminiscence. Readers designing multi-core structures and structures on chip will enjoy the dialogue of other subject matters from reminiscence structure, array association, circuit layout concepts and layout for attempt. The presentation permits a multi-disciplinary method of chip layout, which bridges the distance among the structure point and circuit point, as a way to deal with yield, reliability and power-related concerns for embedded reminiscence.

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In such a design, the cache data array will not start until the exact set and way have been selected. 6 shows the organization of the CAM-based cache. It is similar in many respects to the SRAMbased cache. For a CAM-based tag, the cache banking must be based on the index in order to store all the contents of a cache line, with its respective CAM entry. Additionally, all 16 cache lines for each set must be stored in the same bank to ensure that only a single set of CAM comparators is activated. Overall, these requirements allow for less flexibility in the organization of the CAM-based cache.

Tag array itself consumes more than half the power of the memory subsystems. Hence, early planning and thorough understanding of all the factors that contribute to the power, area, and speed in SRAM memory access is also essential to making the right tag selection. 1 Memory Size, Access Time, and Power Relationships As was shown in Chap. 2 there are many levels of embedded memory and caches. The reason for splitting into multiple levels is to tradeoff between speed and capacity [34, 51]. The smaller the size the faster the access time is.

Process variation is further made worse by higher levels of complexity in the design and the demand for chips with high performance but low power consumption. The parameter variations are ­random 4 SRAM-Based Memory Operation and Yield 48 in nature and are expected to be more ­pronounced in minimum geometry transistors commonly used in memories such as SRAM. Consequently, a large number of cells in a memory are expected to have their electrical parameter vary which can result in a low yield due to faulty SRAM.

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