Direct Perception by Claire F. Michaels

By Claire F. Michaels

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Schematic of the optical expansion specifying approach. anatomical one wherein a collection of muscles and joints permits the execution of the activity. Thus, the argument for the conjoint investigation of perception and action is the argument that the perceptual and actional must fit together or must be mutually compatible for adaptive activity to be possible. To describe information (optical expansion) for an act (approaching) is to imply a muscular organization that the information constrains.

51 other joint; the two joints have a reciprocal influence. , a 1:1 or 2:1 beat [von Holst, 1973] ). The activities of the two wrists are mutually constraining. The muscles and joints involved in these collectives are not merely constrained by each other; the collectives themselves are also constrained to take advantage of certain invariants and thereby elevate those invariants to the status of information for the particular animal engaged in the particular activity. The organization of the musculature “sets up” perception by accepting only certain kinds of information and at just those times when it will be used most effectively in the act.

Structural invariants were patterns that remained constant while something else changed. In contrast, transformational invariants were styles of change that remained constant while applied to any number of structures. The term structural invariant is exemplified by geometric shape—those properties that are left unchanged. Similarly, transformational invariants correspond to those operations that leave certain structures invariant. As an example, consider the structured light schematized i n Figure 2-1 and an observer walking toward the assemblage of objects o n the table.

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