By Robert J. Matthys
A brand new harmonic oscillator circuit (which is the easiest in its classification) and a brand new bridge oscillator circuit were further to this version; either circuits are of remarkable functionality. This functional treatise additionally areas every kind of oscillator circuits in a typical framework to give an explanation for their layout and study their functionality. real operating circuits are given for the entire uncomplicated varieties, and comparisons are made among them. the total frequency diversity is roofed, from 1 kHz to a hundred mHz.
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Additional info for Crystal Oscillator Circuits
3. The time constants of the two RC phase-shifting networks should be made as large as possible. This makes their phase shifts as independent as possible of any changes in resistance or capacitance values. Such networks have large gain losses, which mean that the transistor used for the amplifier should be selected on the basis of having the highest possible gain in order to compensate for these losses. The highest gain RF transistors have a minimum current gain hFE of 100. This allows a maximum amplifier voltage gain of about 50.
The common base circuit shows very clearly the strong effect that the crystal’s internal series resistance R, has on circuit design. Referring to Fig. 14a, we see that the net load resistance on the crystal is the parallel sum of R, and Q,‘s emitter input resistance. The net load resistance and the crystal’s internal series resistance R, act as a voltage divider, which reduces loop gain. The lower the load resistance on the crystal, the more loop gain is reduced, and the larger the gain that Qi has to provide to maintain oscillation.
The external load capacitance is in series with the crystal’s internal motional capacitance, which reduces net oscillation capacitance and raises the resonant frequency proportionately. The output signal is larger because the impedance of the crystal’s current measuring element is larger. A basic schematic is shown in Fig. 12~. The crystal is driven by as low a source resistance as possible RI,. The crystal’s load consists of two small capacitors in series that act as a 5 to 1 voltage divider to isolate the amplifier’s resistive loading and overload peak-clipping effects from the crystal.