By Dr. Mahboob Ul Hussain
Gap-junction proteins, connexins are very important mobile entities that keep an eye on a number of elements of mobile body structure. The connexins represent huge relations of proteins. the current booklet offers simple review approximately quite a few facets of connexin proteins. The booklet has attempted to the touch the elemental points of connexin family members. This booklet might be beneficial to huge viewers that incorporates under-and post-graduate scholars, examine students, clinicians, and so forth. The reference part on the finish of the ebook might be important in case you search to understand deeper information about this relations of proteins.
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Extra info for Connexins: The Gap Junction Proteins
The promoter region of the mouse Cx32 gene contains two putative binding sites for HNF-1. 2 Regulation by Tissue-Specific Factors 23 mainly responsible for the cell-specific expression of Cx32. These observations are based on the fact that the HNF-1α null mice show significantly decreased Cx32 expression. 5 Oestrogen Oestrogen is a steroid hormone, which directly influences the expression of many genes by binding and subsequent activation of oestrogen receptor. Oestrogen receptors constitute the widely studied nuclear receptor.
Shox2 binds the promoters of Cx40 and Cx43 and activates their transcription. In mouse cardiac cells, Cx40 transcription is further regulated by homeodomain-only protein (Hop). The Hop encodes a 73 amino acid protein that contains a domain (the 60-amino acid homeodomain) homologous to those seen in homeobox transcription factors. Unlike all other known homeobox transcription factors, Hop does not directly bind DNA. It is expressed in the embryonic heart and plays an important role in development of the adult cardiac conduction system.
Connexins, being the membrane proteins, are to be delivered to the membrane for the assembly and establishment of gap junction communication. However, connexins are known to be multifunctional proteins, and the mere formation of gap junction communication does not explain all the potential functions influenced by the connexins. In addition to the gap junction communication, connexins are part of various protein complexes, which control various physiological processes of the cell. Thus, connexins not only help in intercellular communication but also mediate intracellular communication by interacting with many other proteins.