By Leon Festinger
The writer contends country of deadlock exists inside studying thought mostly simply because a few of its significant assumptions stand in obvious competition to cetain well-established experimental effects. The e-book places ahead a brand new idea that turns out to reconcile those info and assumptions. This new concept can account for facts with which different theories have hassle: it integrates empirical phenomena which have been considered as unrelated, and it truly is supported through the result of experiments designed particularly to check its implications. those experiments are totally defined within the text.
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Additional resources for Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Some Worries about Gigerenzer’s Descriptive Claims In a couple of cases, Gigerenzer’s descriptive claims seem less than fully warranted. For example, in a fascinating and illuminating discussion of 32 Julia Driver and Don Loeb the behavior of bail magistrates in London, he shows that the vast number of these magistrates’ decisions ﬁt a much simpler, tree-like decision procedure, rather than the multifactor analysis they believe themselves to be employing. While we can think of unanswered questions about the magistrates’ decisions, we do not wish to (and indeed are not in a position to) claim that Gigerenzer’s analysis is incorrect.
Thus, for those theories that assume that all consequences of all possible actions should be taken into account to determine the best action, fast and frugal heuristics appear to be questionable guidelines. Even social intuitionists who argue against rationalist theories as a valid descriptive theory are anxious not to extend their theory to the normative level. For instance, Haidt (2001) is quick to point out that intuition is not about how judgments should be made, and he cites demonstrations that “moral intuitions often bring about nonoptimal or even disastrous consequences in matters of public policy, public health, and the tort system” (p.
The system is based on the ideal that local justice be served by local people. In England and Wales, magistrates make decisions on some two million defendants per year. They sit in court for a morning or afternoon every one or two weeks and make bail decisions as a bench of two or three. The Bail Act of 1976 and its subsequent revisions (Dhami & Ayton, 2001) require that magistrates pay regard to the nature and seriousness of the offense; to the character, community ties, and bail record of the defendant; and to the strength of the prosecution case, the likely sentence if convicted, and any other factor that appears to be relevant.